Lessons in Management from the ‘Wild’

Cheesecake, snakes and the protege…

“Use what talents you possess: the woods would be very silent if no birds sang there except those that sang best.”

Henry Van Dyke

My first meeting with Sanjaya was when he was a thirteen year old young man, bubbling with enthusiasm, and quite happy to talk for endless hours about reptiles.  His sister worked with me at Sara Lee Courtaulds, and having heard much about him, I remember eagerly anticipating our meeting.  He came in with his sister and their parents, and sat their happily gulping down a cheesecake Roons (my wife) had prepared.  It was clear that his heart lay in studying reptiles (why, was certainly beyond me !) and seeing him talk with such awe and animation, the passion he had for the topic was abundantly clear.  I still recall his detailed descriptions of the different snakes in the zoo !

Many years afterwards, Sanjay came to meet me, having just completed his Bachelors in Business.  He told me that he wanted to get into ‘HR’ and that the dream for studying reptiles had died with the only scholarship for the area being taken out.

So began the journey of the ‘protege’ – and today, the young man is poised to take on the lead role of our research unit.  This edition is largely his work – and boy did we all get a healthy doze of information about animals !

Thanks Sanjay –  we look forward to further contributions…

High5 !

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The ‘Protege’ In Conversation With Gunaratne Banda

As this time’s edition was dedicated to ‘lessons in management from the wild’ we were pondering on who we could interview.  Many ideas were mooted and discarded as we felt that none of them would really have much weight.  Then came the idea of interviewing a ‘Mahout’.  It intrigued us to no end how a puny human being could train and control a behemoth of a beast that could make him into a human smoothie in seconds.  So the quest for an interview with a mahout began.

Just about the same time, a coincidence occurred when Fayaz and I saw a tusker passing by the office (on Pepiliyana Road) and we went up to the mahout and asked him for an interview.  This was not successful but we did manage to hold up traffic for a good ten minutes and get rather rude but creative responses thrown at us.

Scroll to the bottom of this post to read the full interview.

Searching for the ‘tamer’

The search ended when we reached out to the man who knows all about elephants – Thusitha Ranasinghe of Maximus fame – to put us in touch with an experienced mahout.  The only request we made was that the mahout should be an experienced one.  We heard from Thusitha right away, and there we were, on our way to Pinnawala (home to the infamous elephant orphanage) to meet the ‘tamer’ cum buddy of the beast to find out more about his story, close up…

Entre Mr. U. G Gunaratne Banda

We were put in touch with the Millennium Elephant Foundation and the manager took us to meet the mahout he had in mind for us.  Anyone who knows me would tell you that a suicide bomber dying for a cause had nothing on me when it came to animals.  I am a certified animal fanatic. We were told that he was the most experienced they had.

We approached the river bank and our first sight of Mr. Banda was of him industriously scrubbing an elephant (with a coconut husk) that was submerged and lying flat having a bath in the river.  The elephant looked up, got up and out of the water and I was in shock.  It unfolded its massive frame and there stood one of the most beautiful tusked elephants that I had seen.  For a moment there, I looked like a Bon Jovi Groupie who had just been able to touch the hem of the overcoat of the lead singer.  I was suddenly afflicted with a rather surprising ailment where I could not seem to keep my mouth closed.  But everything settled down and we got down to business.

How did you get into the field ?

Banda’s relationship with elephants had begun as a childhood affair, “I have always been keen on elephants.  Ever since I was a kid I would go behind my elder brother who was a mahout and watch all that he did.  I would also help him with the day to day activities which had to be done to maintain the elephant.”  He loved elephants so much that he quit school at the age of 12 and started to be fully engaged with elephants.

However, tragedy was to strike when his brother got killed by the elephant that he was tending.  Banda, 18 at the time, never let the incident stop him from taking up the same profession and saw it as a natural progression instead.  “I did not look after the elephant that killed him but it was then that I really got into this vocation.”

How do you learn to become a mahout?

“You must learn through apprenticeship.  You go and become an apprentice to a seasoned mahout who will take you under his wing.  You learn all that you can from him.” said Banda.  There is little or no possibility for one to learn the caring of elephants from books – and all you had was the words and deeds of the teacher / master (known is local parlance as the ‘gurunahansey’.

He adds, “It is all to do with experience.  You yourself must do the work, which is the only way you will learn.  You do need to read books to learn the ali mantara but this is not much.  Everything is learnt from observation and then practically doing what you have been taught.”  Gurunahanseys do not teach everybody all the secrets they know.  They teach all they know only to a select few who are good, talented and who will not abuse the art.

What does it take to do what you do ?

I was curious to find out the pre-requisites if I may, to become a mahout.  What is that one needs to be able to control and at the same time, maintain peace with by far one of the biggest creatures in the animal world.  First things first, Banda says, “You must first love the elephant.  Without this nothing is possible.  The you must learn the aspects that you will need to look after an elephant.”

On the other hand, he is also quick to reflect on something he considers key to the relationship, “You must not be overly scared of elephants.  They will sense it and bully you.” And this is the reason he attributes to many mahouts ending up as drunkards in Sri Lanka as they turn to alcohol to overcome the fear. He is quick to admit that he too is in fear all the time, but thinks it is good and there is a requirement to be vigilant all the time, “you need to be scared to a certain degree as this keeps you on your toes.  It is folly to not be scared.”

Every day is a NEW day !

Elephants are always tied up at night, and the first thing done every morning is to visit and gauge its mood.  According to Banda, this is an essential thing to do, and not doing so can be extremely dangerous. “If an elephant is in a good mood it will flap its ears, pass feces and urine and make deep gurgling noises to greet you.  If it is in a bad mood it would stand motionless and appear morose.” And if you do find the elephant is a bad mood, the practice is not to release him for the day or even until he gets over the negative behaviour.

What do you do when its in a foul mood ?

At that moment, I felt a little uncomfortable thinking about an elephant being in a bad mood – and was curious to find out what to do ? After all, not like you can do a high five and a motivational speech. Or buy chocolates for that matter.

But maybe not chocolates, but it comes close.  Banda says it important to tend to it during this time, “You have to give the food it likes to eat like sugar cane, palm sugar, treacle, banana and kitul.  Kitul is their favorite.” He even chants what is called an ‘ali mantra’ (chanting for elephants) before he feeds them.  Not just once, but chant is over and over for a 108 times before he feeds.  This apparently gets them into good mood !

Others routines

Considering the elephants are brought up in artificial environment compared to the wild they come from, there are several things that needs a close tab on, including :

  • keep the elephant’s stable (called the ‘ali panthiya’) clean and tidy.
  • bathe the elephants number of times each day, as there body needs to be kept constantly cooler.
  • feed them well : a grown elephant will need to eat 100 coconut branches or a whole kitul tree a day.  Banda feeds between 300 to 400 kg a day.
  • tackle basic injuries and deceases.  He uses sinhala (traditional) medicine which takes time according to him, but heals proper.

The relationship

For Banda, the basis of the relationship is that a mahout is in debt to an elephant as it is through its effort, sweat and blood that he makes a living.  “We try to repay this by looking after it well and keeping it happy.   When this debt is paid the relationship has gone its full cycle.”

And duly notes, “The elephant needs to trust you and you must earn that trust as a mahout.”

For aspiring mahouts, he has a piece of advice too, “Give first priority to the animal and well being, and then think about money.  If you look after the elephant well, money will automatically follow.”

As Banda left to take care of the dinner of his companion, I could not stop thinking of the similarities of the relationship between Banda and his Karberi Rajah (the name of the elephant), and the one between a boss and his team at the workplace !

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The full interview.

Tell us how you got into the field

I have always been keen on elephants.  Ever since I was a kid I would go behind my elder brother who was a mahout and watch all that he did.  I would also help him with the day to day activities which had to be done to maintain the elephant.  I loved elephants so much that I quit school at the age of 12 and started to be fully engaged with elephants.  My brother got killed by the elephant that he was tending when I was 18 years old.  The natural path was for me to become a full time mahout.  I did not look after the elephant that killed him but it was then that I really got into this vocation.

How do you learn to become a mahout?

You must learn through apprenticeship.  You go and become an apprentice to a seasoned mahout who will take you under his wing.  You learn all that you can from him.  There is not much book learning.  You must follow the instructions of your gurunahansey (Master) and watch how he goes about his tasks.  It is all to do with experience.  You yourself must do the work, which is the only way you will learn.  You do need to read books to learn the ali mantara (Elephant mantra) but this is not much.  Everything is learnt from observation and then practically doing what you have been taught.  Gurunahanseys do not teach everybody all the secrets they know.  They withhold the Gurumushtiya.  They teach all they know only to a select few who are good, talented and who will not abuse the art.  The art of handling an elephant can be used to do wrong.

What does it take to be a Mahout?

You must first love the elephant.  Without this nothing is possible.  You must learn the aspects that you will need to look after an elephant.  You must not be overly scared of elephants.  They will sense it and bully you.  This is why most mahouts in Sri Lanka are more often than not drunkards.  They are scared and to get the feeling to subside they intoxicate themselves.  Vigilance is essential, you need to always be on the alert and pay attention to detail.  I am scared on a daily basis.  This is not a bad thing; you need to be scared to a certain degree as this keeps you on your toes.  It is folly to not be scared

What is the daily routine and general up keep of an elephant like?

An elephant is always tied up at night and the first thing you do I the morning is to visit the elephant and gauge its mood.  This has to be done every day and without fail.  If you neglect to do this it can become very dangerous.  If an elephant is in a good mood it will flap its ears, pass feces and urine and make deep gurgling noises to greet you.  If it is in a bad mood it would stand motionless and appear morose.  At times like this the elephant is not released on that particular day or until he stops displaying this type of behavior.  It can be just in a bad mood for no apparent reason or if it is a male elephant it can be coming in to musth.  This is the period where in the wild bull elephants fight each other for the right to mate.  They are very violent at this time.  As a mahout I need to be able to pick this, it is an innate ability that comes only with sheer experience.  If an elephant is in a bad mood you must tend to it and fuss over it.  You have to give the food it likes to eat like sugar cane, palm sugar, treacle, banana and kitul.  Kitul is their favorite.  You have to chant an ali manthara over the food a 108 times and then feed it to the elephant.  This gets them into a good mood.

Then the elephant’s stable which is called the ali panthiya needs to be cleaned out and tidied.  Elephants need to keep constantly cool, so we bathe them a number of times a day for long periods of time.  The entire body is scrubbed and cleaned.  They love the treatment that they get.

Elephants eat a lot.  My elephant is full grown; he needs to eat 100 coconut branches or a whole kitul tree a day.  Somehow or the other I give him about 300 to 400 kilograms of food a day.

As mahouts we need to know how to tackle basic injuries and diseases in an elephant.  The medicine that we have is traditional Sinhala medication.  I believe in the traditional medicines as opposed to the western treatments. Sinhala treatment is messy and takes time to heal but it is a complete recovery.  When we use Western medicines, t he elephants get recurring attacks.  For instance when an elephant is having a stomach ailment we make a medicine called the Dalu paha.  It is a mixture of 5 herbal leaves which we mash up together with Epsom salts and give to the animal.  It is also important that when an elephant has an open wound to tie a gunny sack around it when it goes for a bath as the fish in the river come, peck at it and infects it.

If an elephant is looked after well it will live to a ripe old age of about 80years.  Handling and maintaining an elephant is a full time job.  My mind is always on my elephant.  When I go home at night I am so tired that I cannot do anything else.  That is what it takes to keep an elephant healthy and happy.

I have heard that there are elephant castes.  Is this true?

Yes it is true.  There are 18 castes of elephants.  I cannot remember the names of all of them but the highest caste is called Sadantha and the lowest cast is called Rodi.  You do not find Saddantha caste elephants in Sri Lanka.  They say that you can find them in the jungles along the foothills of the Himalayas.  Many of the elephants in Sri Lanka who are taken for pereharas (Processions) are from the Managala caste and the Hema cast.

How do you identify which caste an elephant belongs to?

There are many physical characteristics you see.  For instance a good caste elephant needs to have a trunk and a tail that touches the ground.  Good straight limbs with round feet.  They need to be big and tall with a good body shape and have light colored areas on trunk and forehead.  This is called gomara.

It is not only looks that matter in an elephant and when you are identifying a caste.  The elephant must be good inside and outside, otherwise there is no point.  It must be obedient and kind, have an exceptional personality and attitude.  This is what makes a great elephant.

Tell me a bit about the elephant that you are currently handling

I have close to forty years experience and have handled 15 elephants.  This one is my 16th.  He is a big tusker and his name is Karberi Rajah.  He was presented to the temple of the tooth from India.  He is called Karberi rajah as he is from the karberi islands.  He is from the Hema caste.  He has a leg which is twisted.  The leg was in this state when we got him.  They said that this was because he had fallen into a deep hole and got the leg injured.  It bothers him sometimes as the leg swells up but then we treat it and it goes back to normal.  He is a good steady elephant and is obedient.  He hoots every morning when he sees me coming.  He also cries out when I have to give him a spanking and hangs onto the ankus and asks me not to hit him.  He has a crooked tail which is bent in 5 places.  This usually means that he will kill five men but as his leg is twisted, he is unable to do any harm.

How do you select and train an elephant

It’s very good and effective if you get a very young elephant so that you can start training it at a young age.  When selecting elephant you must first look at whether it is a healthy animal and if physically it is a good specimen.  Apart from this it must be mellow and have a good personality.  This must come with a mahout’s intuition and instinct.  He must just know if the elephant will be a good animal or not.  It is an innate ability that cannot be explained.

The attitude of the elephant is very important.  There are some elephants that are naturally lazy and will not work unless forced to.  Some elephants are workaholics.  They live to work and they enjoy it.  You sometimes can’t stop them from working.  This is not dependent on the breeding or caste they are in.  It is the way they have been trained and brought up at a young age.

There is a special language that we use to communicate with the elephant.  It is called the ali baasaawa or elephant language.  We also use nila points to communicate with the elephants.  These are pressure points and when we touch these specific locations on its body with the ankus or our heels. the elephant gets the message.  The message depends on where we touch them and which nila points are stimulated.  There are different types of nila points.  There are some to control, some to stimulate the elephant and some to kill it.  There are nila points which can kill an elephant in 15 minutes.  When an elephant sometimes just refuses to work, we have no alternative so what we do is we use these pressure points to subdue it and to get it under control.

Elephants can be taught to do anything, may it be to go in processions, logging, murder and even execution.  It is a very intelligent animal and can pick a new thing up within days or faster.

Before you start training you need to earn the elephants trust.  The only way to do this is to tend to the animal and feed it.  A mahout has to develop a bond with the elephant and understand its personality and its nuances.  This process cannot be rushed.  If it is the elephant must suffer as the only way to get it to listen to you is to hit it and hurt it.  This is cruel.

An elephant needs to be taught through showing it what to do and then praising it if it does it properly or reprimanding it if it does not listen.  They are so intelligent that it does not take much to train them.  Elephants can be trained without any form of negative reinforcement.  There is no need to hit or harm an elephant if you get the animal when it is young and if you use ali manthara an elephant can be trained without any hassle.  The younger mahouts these days do not know the art and always try to coerce an elephant to perform tasks.

The skill which is the toughest to teach is logging where they have to haul and drag logs at logging sites or saw mills.  They carry the logs with their lips so what we do is apply treacle on a small piece of log and get them to bite it.  They do so because it is sweet.  At first they hold on to it with their lips but when they get tired they hold it fully in their mouth.  After this we give them the command to pick the log and they do so in about 5 to 6 days of continuous training.   Elephants engage in many different tasks as such learning when it comes to elephants is continuous.  They need to learn different skills at different times in their lives depending on the type of work they do.

What is the relationship you have with the elephant?

All a mahout has is his relationship with the elephant.  It is very important to cultivate this relationship.  It must be strengthened.  I build up my relationship with the elephant every day.  The elephant needs to trust you and you must earn that trust as a mahout.  This is simply done by looking after it and loving it and spending time with it.  An elephant will reciprocate and treat you well.  It is common to hear of cases where an elephant is known to mourn the loss of their mahout or owner.  There are incidents where elephants have cried and gone off their food at the death of their master.

Whatever the relationship you have with the elephant it is still a living breathing thing with feelings.  It will also get angry from time to time.  This is mostly because we have taxed it too much or not treated it properly.  An elephant does not know its own strength and sometimes when it lashes out it kills the human being.  This is not done on purpose most of the time.

You see we as mahout are in debt to the elephant.  It is through the animal effort, sweat and blood that we make our living.  We are constantly in its debt, we try to repay this by looking after it well and keeping it happy.   This is the basis of the relationship.  When this debt is paid the relationship has gone its full cycle.  The elephant decides when it is time to move on.  When it is time he will not listen to the mahout and will become difficult to control.  A new mahout is then needed to look after him

Although the elephant needs to trust you fully you can never trust any elephant a 100%.  The most you can trust an elephant is 60%.  It is irrelevant how long you have known the elephant or whether you raised it up since it was a calf.  The elephant is and always will be a wild animal and is many times stronger than a human.  You must always be vigilant.  It is folly to trust an elephant fully.

What was the most memorable incident of your career?

I was once in charge of this tusker (and he points to another large tusker taking a bath).  I tied him to a king coconut tree and left it for the night.   The next thing I know is that he had torn the tree off the ground and run with it to the city of Kegalle and was running amok terrorizing the entire area.  We had to get the veterinary department of the Peradeniya University to come and tranquilize it.  He was very head strong but he is a good elephant.  It was he who was behind the incident which was the most frightening of my life.  We were walking him from the perehera on the road and suddenly he got annoyed and hit me.  I was sent flying through the air head over heels to the side of the road.  He charged me and I jumped into a nearby marsh.  The elephant chased me down and I made it through to the other end, the water and mud was up to my chin.  He chased me all the way there and then chased me back across the swamp.  I thought it was the end for me.  The elephant could not be restrained for more than one and a half days.  Every time he saw me he charged.  I must have somehow made him angry.  Afterwards I tended to it and got its trust and good will back.    I met with the owner of the elephant and gave him a stack of beetle, worshipped him and said I just cannot handle this elephant and I was given another one.

What do you think about the Human Elephant conflict?

It’s unfair isn’t it?  Elephants have been living in those forests for hundreds of years.  Now humans have come, encroached on their feeding grounds.  What do you expect?  Elephants now do not have enough space to live and so they often come into contact with humans and this leads to conflict.  Humans need to understand that they are trespassing on the elephant’s home.  The elephants cannot help it.  We need to know better

What advice would you give young mahouts?

Treat the elephant well.  You earn your living through that animal.  Give first priority to the animal and well being, and then think about money.  If you look after the elephant well money will automatically follow.  Treating the elephant well is the right thing to do and it is only fair.

Be willing to learn and to put in the effort to learn.  Be obedient and do what your gurunahansey tells you to.

If you do these things success will follow you, there is no question.

Towards the latter part of the interview we saw Mr. Banda looking towards the elephant in a concerned way and we also noticed that he was getting a bit agitated.  Finally my interminable questions stopped and he gratefully got up to go.  Then he said that it is time for Rajas dinner and that he must know attend to that.  .  Although there was much shouting and threatening towards the elephant one could see the look of concern and the faint traces of a smile every time Mr. Banda looked at his charge.  His face weather beaten and lined, splits into a smile of pride as I marvel at his elephant…You could not mistake the pride and love on the Mahouts face.  Mr. Banda walks the talk, Karberi Rajah was the most well kept and best behaved elephant at the foundation…A credit to the thousands of hours of hard work, care and love put into keeping this modern day mammoth happy.  A big job indeed !

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Thoughts and reflections : Recruitment strategies from the K9 world By Sanjaya Gunaratne

Recruitment within the traditional organizational setting is a topic which needs no introduction.  It has been crucial as organizations strive to get and harness the best talent in the market.  It has been studied, stripped down and taken to bits.  Many a debate has been waged on it. 

Here we take a look at two completely different fields of operation and decipher what the similarities are and also about some basic principles which I believe should be adhered to. It has been my contention that there are always certain principles that are common to a practice irrespective of the field or industry or dare I say the species that it operates in and with.

In the realm of the K9 world, recruitment is so crucial that without exaggeration everything depends on this initial selection.  Although it is not very well known, many similarities and lessons can be gleaned by taking a look at the selection of dogs for police and military work.

I cannot stress enough the fact that I am NOT comparing dogs to human executives but merely the recruitment practices that is in use and are required to gain the best results.  A different perspective always offers fresh insights.  Before carrying on further, I do believe that a small introduction to the K9 unit is in order.

K9 – what are they all about ?

Almost every police or military force in the world has a K9 unit.  These dogs are used to sniff out explosives, arson, cash and drugs, track missing people and dead bodies.  They are also used in law enforcement and to protect its human handler if needed.

A number of select breeds are used for K9 work but not all.  The main reasons for this are the temperament, attitude and trainability of the breed.  Different breeds are used for different purposes depending on their temperament and ability.  After selection, the chosen dog is subjected to rigorous and regimented training designed to make it as efficient at its chosen job as possible and also to give it the ability to operate in any terrain and scenario.  The fact that some dogs can smell cash, explosives, even cancer cells in the human body and some others can take down an armed assailant from a moving vehicle is testament to the extensive training these animals go through.

Designations – and promotions too !

Most law enforcement organizations have their dogs sworn in as police/military personnel and give the K9 officer a ‘badge.’  Attacking, injuring or killing a K9 officer has a harsher penalty than that of normal cruelty to animals, the same way that attacking a human police officer carries with it tougher penalties.  K9 units promote their dogs in cases of exemplary service and some even make it to the rank of sergeant.  If a K9 officer is killed in action it is given a police/military funeral – some of which are opened to the public.

Different Functions need different types of individuals  

Police and military K9 units have different functions ranging from acting as attack dogs to sniffer dogs.  Each job entails a different set of skills and competencies and more importantly a different attitude.  The attitude is the number one reason why different breeds of dogs are used by the police for different purposes.

For an example, Labrador Retrievers are most commonly used as sniffer dogs as they have a higher response towards more skilled training and also because they are a low risk in crowded areas such as airports.  This is due to them having a gentle and outgoing personality and temperament. They are also an obedient and intelligent breed.

However a Labrador will never be a competent attack dog as it does not have the aggression or the fight drive to chase down and subdue an armed assailant.  This role is suited for more charged up breeds like Rottweilers, Dobermans or Boxers who are naturally protective and respond well to high pressure situations.

Most of the time in an organizational setting, we look at the more obvious aspects when recruiting for different functions.  For an example if a Marketing position is to be filled, what will be looked at is if the candidate has a proper qualification, experience and whether he makes a good impression through his communication skills at the interview.

Of course there is no doubt that the proper qualifications are needed, but what about the attitude?  You need a marketing person to be outgoing, extroverted and driven, someone who is a live wire and who is interested in the market and loves the hustle and bustle of it.  He/she needs to be creative, always looking to connect with the target market and come up with new initiatives to sell the product.   Whereas for a finance person the more important attributes would be an analytical and orderly mind and a less of a risk taking attitude.  Such an occupation entails caution, attention to detail and consistency.  The two jobs are two completely different kettles of fish and one individual may have qualifications in both fields such as CIM and CIMA but it is very rare for the same person to have the polar opposite attitudes the two functions require.  Obviously he/she will be better at one job than the other and this will largely depend on attitude.  Therefore, this makes due consideration of attitude a rather key element at the recruiting stage.

Basics need to be in place

All dogs brought into the K9 training program must have certain basic requirements fulfilled.  They are all tested for their health by putting them through a battery of tests.  An agility test is given to check if they can maneuver and balance.  The temperament of a dog is looked into to see if it is too timid or too aggressive, both of which if it comes out positive will rule out the dog.  Finally the hips of the dog are x-rayed to ascertain if it has a proper set of hips as hip dysplasia is a major concern.  A dog cannot fail any of these tests. If they fail even one, they are deemed unfit to be taken in for training.  The reason for being so strict on the above criteria is because they are the basic needs.  You cannot build on a dog that does not have these basic requirements.  It will be a useless venture.

Likewise a set of basic requirements is a must.  If these are not fulfilled, there is a higher likelihood of a candidate not being effective in the job that he/she does and sometimes could even be detrimental to the organisation.  Create a list of the basics that you feel are a must and are needed a 100%.  We tend to fall into the trap where a candidate creates a great impression on us with his speaking ability, confidence and appearance even though he/she does not fulfill the basic criteria.  Do not be tempted to hire persons based on without the ‘core competencies’, no matter how much they impress you !

Specialist requirements need specialist resources 

There are extremely specialized functions within organizations which are of importance to the organisation.  Most of the time these positions are difficult to fill due to the low supply of candidates with the required facets or because the candidates who do have the requirements are extremely expensive.  Take a high end statistician.  A research company will want a solid statistician who is experienced and well worsted in many of the techniques in the discipline so that he can handle varied assignments.

In the same context of things, there are certain breeds of dogs which have been bred for a specific purpose.  A good example is the blood hound.  It has the most sensitive nose in the dog world and has been famous over time as the undisputed tracker dog.  Able to follow a scent after many days of the trail going cold and through any weather including snow and rain.  A true specialist in the sniffing field, its sense of smell and tracking capability is unparalleled.  It is the breed that is called in to handle the toughest tracking assignments.

However, there are times when one may be tempted to settle for a candidate who is not the best for the specialized function and not as equipped and suitable but can ‘manage’.  Filling the vacancy (and getting it over with) might just take precedence, and in the process we may miss the probability of a really trying and specialized situation cropping up. Imagine bidding for a massive project and it requiring a cutting edge statistician who has up to date knowledge on the most complex areas in the field, and the one you recruited does not ! He/She may be able to take on 90% of the projects but not THIS one, when he is needed the most.   This is akin to a German shepherd being bought into a tough tracking case.  German Shepherds are good trackers but they are not specialist trackers.  They cannot perform to the level of a blood hound.  Bringing in a dog like this in a life or death situation may end in a fatality if the dog cannot track him/her on time.  Do not compromise when it comes to niche crucial positions.  Spend the time and the money needed to hire the right person who suits it the best.  It will serve you well when you approach that crucial juncture where nothing but the best will do.

Leave room for a wild Card

Although police and military outfits do most of the time go for pure bred dogs, there have been instances where cross bred dogs off the street have been extremely successful police dogs.  One such story was put down as an article on the Reader’s Digest about a dog named King who was a cross bred dog off the street on a dog pound death row.  This was because he was aggressive.  Luckily a police officer took a liking to him and took the dog in for K9 training and it turned out to be the most successful police dog in the state with thousands of kilos worth of drug busts and many a felon in jail after he chased them down.  The most decorated military dog in history,  Sergeant Stubby too was a cross bred !

Likewise sometimes in a recruiting process in an organization it is always good to have a few wild cards in the fray.  There have been many occasions where individuals have been successful in a field when at the outset it appeared as if he/she was thoroughly unsuited for the job at hand.  Sometimes its worth giving probability the chance as you can come up trumps.  It also gives you the advantage of harnessing different skills and aptitudes to the existing function and seeing where it can be taken.  One such wild card may even turn the field on its head by bringing to the table a whole new mode of thinking and completely different set of competencies.  He/she might even give that particular area an ‘Attitude adjustment’!  So get a wild card in there and see what happens…

Thinking independently and taking the initiative

Finally, at the highest level of training a police or military dog is expected to override the basic command given if the situation calls for it.  For example if a dog is given the command to sit and stay and then the handler is attacked, the dog is expected to override the initial command and go to the rescue of the handler.  For this, when selecting dogs the military especially looks at dogs who are high spirited and who have a personality of their own and who also thinks on their own.  These dogs are tough and will stand up for themselves.

Likewise when recruiting I believe hardly any organisation would want people who are merely drones or machines who just do what they are told to do.  Organizations would want individuals who think for themselves and who take initiative.  Those who would challenge the status quo for the betterment of the organisation.  This is what will set them apart.

In conclusion

Just like getting the right breed of dog with the right attitude, we all agree that recruiting the right people for the right job is one of the toughest jobs an organisation faces.  In embracing this challenge, it is key to clearly understand what we have control over, the job scope, and try to find people who could have complimentary traits that will help them get the job done, and perhaps, enjoy doing it too.  Picking a straight As nerd to do sales (unless maybe you are selling nuclear reactors) or a socializer for auditing, might just be asking for trouble.

In recent years, there are new assessment tools with good ratings on validity and effectiveness that have come up which can come in useful to check aspects which are not outwardly manifested.  Also, a mixture of good old day calls to former employers, and understanding a little about the last few bosses the prospect has worked with, might help you understand the rigour he/she has gone through, preparing you on what to expect in the immediate future.  Like with K9s, or any one of us, you never know what to expect, until you just get down and do it.

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True Animal Tales : Animal capability presented in doses

A wonderful collection of true stories about animals from different parts of the world.

Once the host of the Animal Hospital series on BBC, Rolf shares stories of these animals as small anecdotes, refreshing, and sometimes will make you want for a more detailed storyline.

The stories include a dog who guarded its master’s grave for 14 years, another who fell asleep inside a washing machine, a pig who saved a drowning little boy, and even a goat which happily stole an ice cream van ! Do I mean a van, the vehicle ? Yes I do !

Short, funny and truly inspiring ! Read this book to find out stories about the ones who at times scare us, love us and if lucky, save our lives too !

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Click here to check out the book on Amazon.com

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The Cowboy and his Elephant : An unlikely friendship

Man an animals have rather interesting stories together – but this one has a unique place amongst them.

Bob Norris was a cowboy infamous for putting his face on Marlboro billboards all over the world, and met a female baby elephant quite by chance.  Her herd had been culled, with her being the solitary survivor, transported all the way from Southern Africa to be sold in the United States.

Under his care, and with the help of a goat whom Bob introduced to the elephant as a playmate, the journey began to help the elephant regain itself, its life, and above all, its confidence on us human beings

This remarkable and engrossing read shares the road one man takes in his quest to give an elephant its life back – and the unlikely friendship that unfolds in the process !

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Click here to check out the book on Amazon.com

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Hachiko – A Dog’s Story : Lessons in friendship and loyalty

This movie is an adaption of a true story that happened in Japan.  In the movie, Parker Wilson a professor, finds a dog at the train station, on his way back home one day. After the station controller refuses to take him, he decides to take the dog home himself, with the hope of someone calling in looking for it.  In the meantime, with nobody having called, they become close to each other, to the extent where his wife lets him keep the dog having initially refused to.

‘Hatchi’ followed Parker wherever he went, including a routine of walking up to the station in the morning, where Parker would leave to the University, and in the evening, when the dog would come all the way to the station to walk back home with him. Every single day !

Watch this wonderful movie to find out what happens when Parker suddenly passes away one day, which will teach you lessons on friendship and loyalty, few else could !

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Click here to watch the official trailer of the movie.

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Orca teamwork

Most of us know killer whales as gentle giants through the movie Free Willy.  Few however know of the intelligence and the ruthless teamwork they employ as top predators.

Orcas or killer whales  are extremely intelligent and social animals who live in groups called pods.  They remain in their family groups through out the entirety of their lives.  and display complex social behaviours such as protecting their weak and young members.

Orcas are also famous for their prowess in communication.  Each pod has its own unique set of sounds which include whistles, clicks and even screams. This rare video (The only one of its kind) is one of the best examples of team work, communication and coordination you will ever witness in the animal kingdom.

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Click here to watch the orca’s at work, as captured by Animal Planet.

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The miracle at kruger

A herd of buffalos Vs a pride of lions – who does your gut feel say would win  ?  Playing the usual game, the lions storm the herd, isolate a few, then scare the rest off, and they get hold of a poor calf.  The location being the edge of a flowing water body, a crocodile joins in the party too get some too : but the lions finally win the battle and take their prize away and ready for feast.  So we thought.

To every body’s surprise, then came the buffalos, in one big herd. They surround the lions, begin attacking them (one of them throwing a lion in the air), and chase them all away !  What more, the calf is saved !

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Click here to watch the miracle at kruger !

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Never give up !

On another day, and another place, a lioness takes a swing at a pack of zebras, and finds one stranded in the water.  Having made its way through the mud, she tries to strangle the zebra by the neck.  What was again to be a routine affair, had a twist to it.

The zebra tries to get a proper foothold, so as to balance itself better.  Gets into position, then puts all its weight against the lioness, topples it on the water, and makes an attempt to drown it.  In the ensuing battle, the lioness frees the zebra to save its own life.  The zebra survives and goes away, while the lioness is left in a state of shock as to what just unfolded – making us wonder if it will ever get over the incident !

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Click here to watch the zebra’s act of bravado !

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Reunion

Damian Aspinall is a trail blazing naturalist and conservationist who operates a gorilla sanctuary in England.  One of them he raised was name Kwibi, a male, whom he released back to the wild later on at the age of 5.

5 years later after the release, Damian plans a visit to go see his old friend.  Calling out his name, he finally found the creature among the thick forest.  But the most heartwarming thing to see was how Kwibi greeted Damian, welcoming him in his own backyard, introducing him to his family, just like one of us would, when a long lost friend / relative visited us – or maybe not !

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Click here to watch Damian meeting Kwibi for the first time in 5 years !

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A nanny to beat all nannies

Anjana has been a rather interesting person, helping his guardian take care of many others, who are from a variety of different gene pools.  For all the nannies out there, she certainly can be an example for doing her job with lots of love, passion and care !

The difference is that Anjana is a chimpanzee, and the little ones she helps raise are tigers, lions and pumas, at TIGERS (The Institute of Greatly Endangered and Rare Species) in South Carolina, USA.

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Click here to find out more about Anjana and her life.

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Guardian angel

A new born in the city of La Plata in Argentina had been abandoned by her young mother.  A dog, La China –  mother of 6 puppies at the time, had taken the baby to her little living space, and given refuge to him.

The baby was discovered by the dog’s owner who had heard the little one’s cries. Upon examination, the doctors were to say that the dog’s actions might have just saved the new born !  Evidence that the maternal instinct is not only truly universal, and may also go beyond the barriers of the kind as well.

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Click here to watch the CNN report on the story. You can also read the story on BBC here.

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Grooming

A leopard cub in being met by a king cobra, eager to take a shot at the little one.  Later on, the cub is joined by her sibling too.  The battle goes on, and the cubs quick reflexes do not give an opportunity for the cobra to strike its venom and go for the kill.

All along, the mother of the cubs has been in the background, watching it unfold.  Not for a moment does she intervene, knowing for one that her kids can fend off the cobra, and more importantly, letting the kids fend for themselves and begin to face the world on their own…

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Click here to watch the cubs and the cobra take each other on.

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Finding solutions. Solving problems.

Dedicated to the devotion of people to find better ways of doing things !

“Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.”

Albert von Szent-Gyorgy

Since time immemorial, man (or for that matter woman) has found new and better ways of living, and innovation was part of every day life.

Somehow, somewhere down the line, the definition of innovation has become synonymous with isolated buildings, expensive budgets, and extremely secret projects with code names.

This has led to innovation being perceived as complex and judged by appearance, making people feel either too important or incapable to match up to, both of which are ultimately detrimental to the sustenance of the notion within an organization.

Through this issue, we wanted to take a look at how ordinary people innovate, sometimes with little or no resources, but armed with sheer passion, devoting their time, and sometimes their lives in search of a better way to do things.

In the process, we hope to find common threads that organizations can learn from, and perhaps, demystify the complexity associated with the topic, and redefine it to being what it was meant to be : finding better and simpler ways of doing things !

High5 !

Click here to check out the full issue.

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The ‘Evangelist’ In Conversation With Dr. Anil Gupta

Hailing from a village in India’s most populous state Uttar Pradesh, Anil Gupta has turned out to be a ‘Conduit of Knowledge’ whose dream is to get the world thinking, drive innovation and live life as it was meant to be ! He strongly believes that every human being has an infinite mind, and contrary to most, has gone beyond being philosophical about it – dedicating his life towards scouting and showcasing the wonders of ‘unschooled minds’ to the world !

Dr. Gupta is a Professor of Management at the renowned Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA), and the founder of the much acclaimed Honey Bee Network.  As a Vice Chair of the National Innovation Foundation, he works towards scouting and sustaining grassroots innovation, and played a key role in setting up the National Micro Venture Innovation Fund, the first of its kind in the world.

The ‘chance’ meeting, and first impressions

I only knew of Dr. Anil Gupta’s existence last December, thanks to his visit to Sri Lanka to deliver the inaugural Dr. Ray Wijewardene Memorial Lecture.  Although the entire team at High5 were to attend, due to a last moment commitment, I was the solo participant.

My introduction to him happened while he was strolling into the auditorium of the Institution of Engineers of Sri Lanka (IESL), escorted by the organisers – the Ray Wijewardene Charitable Trust together with the IESL.  At that first instance, my eyes met someone very pleasant, with an ever present smile, and that ‘presence’ of a person you only see in someone who has touched ‘greatness’.  Although I remember almost every detail of the evening, what caught my attention the most was an open invitation he made to anyone in the audience to join him on a bi-annual walk through the villages of India, in the spirit of looking at and learning from Innovation at the Grassroots Level called the ‘Shodh Yatra’ !  All I told him was, ‘I will apply for leave, and if I get it, you will see me !’

Shodh Yatra 2012

The Shodh Yatra has been happening for over 15 years now – the beautiful element to it is the fact that they conduct one each during winter as well as summer every year.  Why so ?  Because they have made a conscious effort in visiting people in the villages when the climate is the toughest to handle – and this winter, they had chosen the eastern most state of India, Mizoram as the venue for the yatra – a place where winter is supposed to be tough (something we found out later on in person).  The journey would take us from the village of Sailam, some 90km south of the capital of Mizoram, Aizawl to the village of Melriat – the distance totaling in the region of 80km.  What more – the entire journey of 6 days, 4 of which we moved around, was completely on foot.  YES, every single step of 80km.

In keeping up with the spirit of the journey as well as the deep rooted mission of the man himself, we had our conversations whilst walking – and spread across a couple of days… making it a rather unique conversation.

How do people at the grassroots innovate at NO COST ?

I have always wondered how people at the grassroots, mostly with no formal schooling and little or no resources churn out innovation.  However this question brought an instant reaction from him, and his face conveying to me his feelings well ahead of the words he was about to utter, ‘I think it is UNFAIR for anyone to say there is no cost’ and with almost a mellow tone, pointed out that ‘society measures cost only in monetary terms which is not correct.’ He continued asking, ‘what about the time an innovator spends, the time on the innovation itself, time away from family, from sleep. The opportunity he forgoes to pursue his innovation.  Some of them spend their lifetime on it.’

On the other hand, he also shared the fact of how innovators borrow money, sometimes sell or even exchange things to keep their dream alive.  And he says that it is important that we nurture them since ‘these innovations cost little and meets the needs of many.’

R&D is NOT equal to Innovation

If people do go to such lengths to keep their innovation alive, I wanted to find out why organizations struggle with innovation, particularly with all the resources made available – and some companies committing as much as 5 to 10% of their top line towards R&D.  Dr. Gupta, a Professor in Management at the famous Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad, is familiar with the corporate world, conducting Management Development Programs as part of IIM, running In-house training programs for companies in the areas of Management and Innovation, and also running consultancy assignments in similar lines.

For him organizations are closed units, they operate with a lot of suspicion which leads to constraints on how people operate – thus takes out the space that an innovator requires to come up with things.  But he is quick to point out that there is a much deeper problem with the ethos of innovation within an organization, ‘R&D is not equal to Innovation’ and adds that ‘more than half of all innovations come form outside the company.’  As he sees it, learning that feeds into innovation comes from everywhere : employee, customer, competitor, new technology, scientists, farmers, housewives, children – and the list goes on.

The ‘missing link’

The issue he sees in this process is what he calls ‘symmetrical learning‘ – where he says we learn from everywhere, but fail to acknowledge.  ‘There needs to be an investment in reciprocity. You learn, and you acknowledge the source.’, and this he says will help create a give and take system, not as a philanthropy but as a culture.  And he notes that, ‘it is this ethical fulcrum that is missing, and one that will help solve the problem.’

It is worth noting that he stays true to this credo where Honey Bee acknowledges ALL of its sources at the point of recording, and when sharing with a third party, seeks a written ‘Prior Informed Consent’ from the source.

How do you get ordinary people to innovate ? How do you inspire them ?

The key thing according to him is to get people to realise that everyone has the ability to innovate and come up with ideas.  Now that sounded pretty easy, but sadly its not that easy so I challenged him to show me how.  Putting his signature smile on, he said, ‘remind me during one of our group meetings and lets look at an example.’

Oh boy wasn’t I waiting for this, and brought it up at our final meeting.  Acknowledging the reminder, he asked all the yatris ‘what can be done in order to use a matchstick more than once ?’  Moments passed, and a galore of responses came from all corners of the room including : making it usable on both sides, using a holder and making it reusable, making it like a barbecue where pieces can be taken out after each use, etc  Then he turned to me and explained that innovation has little to do with education and all to do with the questions we ask.  And ‘the moment you ask a question in a way that raises the belief in the minds of people that they too can contribute towards the answer, you automatically make them believe that they can too !’ According to him, we expect little of both ourselves as well as our kids, and he notes that ‘expecting less from yourself is the biggest crime !’

Greatness is what you are born to be

If you are able to find an umbilical code that connects all of Dr. Gupta’s work – what you would see is an honest belief that everybody is born to achieve greatness – whether we end up doing so or not is another story – and according to him ‘if society tries to put constraints on the person, it is the society that loses.’

He shared a story someone once shared with him, about an ant that was traveling with a grain on its back.  This ant met a travis, and decided to drop the grain on it so as to cross the travis.  Having crossed it, the ant decides to leave the grain behind so that it could help other ants cross the path with ease rather than having to find a way to do so themselves.  He then pointed out that, ‘This ant may never be recognised by other ants, but has certainly achieved greatness.’

On the same note, he also pointed out another aspect of the journey of greatness : the family.  ‘Family has a great responsibility in ensuring greatness’ and sadly, in achieving greatness, somebody needs to suffer, which generally are the ones you love.  Needless to say nor ask, you see there for a moment, through those eyes, him picturing all of his loved ones !

Why keep doing this ?

His trademark smile promptly resurfaces, ‘So much to do and there’s only one life.’ As I remind him that he is already touching 60, he responds, ‘I plan to live for 125, and you will see me continue to do this till then.’ – such is his passion towards the cause he has undertaken, if not, his belief that it is not a choice anymore, but a necessity !

What in store ?

What does not surprise me anymore is that Dr. Gupta has a laundry list of things he wants to do, but one of them are dear to his heart at the moment.  He is working on creating an online database of technology licenses (open source) which will be available for free or at a very nominal fee – something people around the world can use to find solutions for their problems.  He is equally keen for the news of this availability to reach kids all around the world so that they can learn about them as well as make use of them !  So why do something like this ? The man who is famously known as the propagator of the analogy ‘the minds on the margin are not marginal minds’ says, ‘Why should someone with the same problem, anywhere in the world, reinvent the same solution ?’

NOTE : For more about the Honey Bee Network, click here.  Dr. Gupta can be followed on his blog here.  And his oration at the 2009 TED Conference can be watched here.

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Moving from Point A to B By Fayaz Mahroof

The doctrine of Innovation may give you this picture of it being an art of a few for many – something that extraordinary minds churn out.  This has also meant that we have grown to look at the concept of Innovation through a rather narrow lens.

Having been using the same lens, I too grew up with a similar outlook – one which bestowed the ability to innovate, upon things new and fascinating to the eye.  However, this has one inbuilt flaw – something I stumbled upon accidentally while wandering around India – it ignores the obvious.  And by that, the ordinary man is discounted of his ability to innovate, and his innovations are away from the mainstream.  Worse, his innovation is not considered as innovation in the first place !

Accidents happen, and some end up leaving a sweet taste behind.  During my recent visit to India, I moved across different states – the metros, the outskirts, the towns and even the remotest of villages crossed my path.  Something I was always curious to find out was how the world’s second most populous state moved around – how do hundreds of millions of people get from point A to B, every single day !

My curiosity began unraveling the more I moved around, I began to realize that the modus operandi differed from state to state, and the closer I looked, the dots began to connect – and interestingly enough, my lens automatically shifted, it began to sense what I have missed for long – the obvious !

Human rickshaws, cycle rickshaws and trams

At my first stop in Kolkata, I bumped into the much talked about cycle rickshaws – a typical bicycle fit into a small carriage, generally able to carry two adults (plus maybe a couple of small kids).  The fuel used for this purpose was the energy spent by the rickshaw driver in peddling it.  It was one of the cheapest ways to move around – and was the most convenient in highly congested areas, but not the most comfortable though.

Also what was to be seen is the predecessor to the cycle rickshaw, where a person pulled the carriage and walked or slow ran with the passengers sitting on them – I called them ‘Human rickshaws’.  I have seen goods being transported in similar fashion back in Colombo, but this was my first with people onboard.  I instinctively felt it was cruel to do so and turned to my accompanying friend, who in her usual calmness said, “I use (human) rickshaws because they too need to make a living.”

Being the romantic I am with all things old, the trams probably took the cake of my attention – but sadly never got to go on them.  Not knowing bengali meant that I could not find out how it operates (and an excuse to go back there certainly).  I could almost sense how it would have been in its hey day, surrounded by the magnificent british architecture still evident today, in what was the capital of India under the empire.  What is interesting to see today though is how they operate them on the same road, side by side all kinds of other transport imaginable!

Enter Mizoram

Mizoram can be classed as the furthest state of India towards the east – sandwiched between Bangladesh and Burma (modern day Myanmar).  A hill country with wonderful landscape, and such genuine people, it certainly warrants a visit.  They even have their own version of Taj Mahal out here !  What surprised me most though, was how they commute.

When I spoke to people of the need for me to travel some 90km south, all everyone had to tell me was, you need to check out for  a ‘Sumo’.  I could not take it anymore and I asked someone what a ‘Sumo’ was – and they said that’s what they use to travel on… and it took me a good day and a half to finally realize they were referring to the Tata Sumo jeep.

When I asked of the availability of a bus, they said, ‘No ! only Sumo’ in the little english they knew – and for a moment there I felt the locals were taking me for a ride since I was a visitor.  A stroll around the streets made me realize that it was the most used mode of transport out here. There were very few busses, and they ONLY ran the city limits – and the bigger busses ran the Highway route from State to State.

A closer look made me realize that generally 8 people (sometimes up to 10) are loaded into a Sumo – 2 in front, 3 in the back seat, and 3 more in an improvised extra seat at the trunk.  All the luggage went on top of the vehicle, tied together using rope – and the journey went on.

Different landscape, different tools

On our return from Mizoram, we took the road to Guwahati, the capital of the state of Assam which cut across the state of Meghalaya.  The landscape was rather different to Mizoram – it was much more plains, and agricultural fields were in abundance.  The roads were still in the making (a national highway) connecting Mizoram, Meghalaya and Assam.

Driving through, I saw a different vehicle being used, but for the same purpose as the Tata Sumo – this time, it was the ‘Force’ branded jeep, a little longer in length than the Sumo which meant more than 10 certainly fit into it at any given time.

Visiting my first Railway Station

Having reached Guwahati, I wanted to use the train for the first time in India, wanting to experience the apparently grueling journey generally lasting about a day or more. But what I did not know was that tickets had to be booked well in advance – at least two weeks prior.

When I was inquired about my tickets by my friends, I was like, ‘What tickets ? I need to buy them…’ and the entire bunch burst into laughter.  But some smart soul pointed out that there is a quota available for foreigners and we went to the station the next morning to check it out.  To my surprise, it existed.  But what caught my eye more was that it was issued at the same price as a local would buy it for – now that for me was equanimity, and wasn’t I happy to see that out here (and yes, my purse was happy too !)

Flying around India

However, I did decide to fly to Kolkata to save some time – got an affordable enough ticket and I flew.  However, I did take a train later on from Kolkata to Delhi (the Poorva Express) and had my experience after all ! How was it ? That’s for another day…

It was in India that I had ever taken a domestic flight (and the sea planes in the Maldives don’t count) – and I took four of them.  History would have it that I ended up taking four different airlines – Spicejet, Air India, Indigo and Kingfisher – something I never really planned to.  The only one I missed being Jet Airways.

The experiences were rather different, but they certainly portrayed the positioning of the brand as well as their current plight – and this is where I wondered, maybe companies have feelings too…

When a stranger hopped in

Back in Kolkata, I wanted to go see my friend’s parents who have known of me for years now… and our choice of transport was trishaws (famously known as tuk-tuks back in Colombo).

Here we were on our way, and suddenly someone stopped us, and a girl sat next to me.  I literally was like ‘What ??’ and turned to my friend.  She figured out that I was not amused and slowly whispered to me saying that it was common practice here – and what we were in was a shared-trishaw – one which operated like a bus from Point A to B – and anyone could hop in and out, and pay for the distance traveled which was decided by the driver and the passenger then and there.  In other words, it was a bus on 3 wheels – and obviously worked much faster !

The Delhi Metro

If one could classify my other experiences as everyday India, the Delhi Metro points towards the future of India – chick, sophisticated, idiot proofed, and most surprisingly, ON TIME !  India owes this wonderful introduction to the man who finished this project on time, E. Sreedharan – its Project Chairman and first Managing Director (retired on the 31st of December 2012).

It covers different corners of Delhi, including a special route which goes directly to the Indira Gandhi International Airport.  With clear maps (available for free at Metro Stations), travel cards or tokens, transparent and fixed pricing, clean at all times, and even a separate compartment for ‘ladies only’ – this modus operandi which cuts some inter city travel by hours during peak times is a revolution – and something that will truly help India move its people around, faster, cheaper and ON TIME !

In conclusion

All these modes of transport had a common thread – they were localized based on local needs and the local environment such as the Sumo jeeps working better in mountainous terrains, practical, commercially viable, and most importantly, MET A NEED !  It also meant something else for me – my lens of looking at what Innovation is has changed… in fact, I have no lens no more !

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Where Good Ideas Come From : The natural history of Innovation

In exploring how ideas come about, Steven Johnson lays out the fact that innovation is most likely to occur when ideas from different people and different disciplines meet each other, leading to a new possibility arising through intersections of existing ideas and knowledge.

He uses this very notion to point out among other things, why cities tend to produce more innovation than small towns, owing to many industries operating employing people of varied disciplines and skills, who move around jobs / companies gathering and sharing their experiences in the process.

This certainly is not a book of theory on Innovation, but rather a look at the environments that breed new ideas and their common threads – through an anecdote approach.

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Click here to watch Steven Johnson’s presentation at TED on ‘Where good ideas come from’

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